*This is a classic introductory calculus problem, with a Minecraft theme. This particular variation is inspired by example 4 in section 4.5 of Stewart's calculus.*

I'll set the scene: You're weaponless. You have half a heart and you're being chased by a skeleton archer. There's a river between you and your cabin. You need to get to your cabin as quickly as possible!

In more "mathy" terms, you want to get from to . There are three main ways you can do this:

- to directly, diagonally across the river
- to and then to
- At slight angle from to and then to

We know that swimming is slower than running, so option 1 isn't the best. Option 2 involves the smallest time in the water, but also the longest distance traveled.

Option 3 is somewhere in between - you spend a bit more time in the water, but the total distance is decreased. The travel time in this case depends on where exactly point is. To find the optimal path, we must find the position of which *minimizes* the travel time. This sounds like calculus!

Let be the distance between points and . In math terms, .

We first need an expression for the total time traveled in terms of . The basic equation for time traveled at constant speed is

.

The first part of the trip is in the water where we travel from to . We can use Pythagorean's theorem to get this distance as . Assuming that we can travel at a speed of in the water, the time for this part is

.

The land part of the trip involves traveling what's left over of after having already traveled , so . Traveling at on land, the time for this part of the trip is

.

The *total* trip time, , is just the sum of these two.

(1)

To optimize this function with respect to , we need to find where it is stationary and then verify that this point is a minimum. This means we want to find a place where the function isn't changing with small changes in . In other words, we want to find a spot where the *derivative* is zero.

Taking the derivative gives:

Setting this equal to zero, we can solve for :

(2)

Let's plug in some numbers! In Minecraft, you can swim at about 2.2 m/s and sprint at 5.6 m/s. Let's take the river width to be 7 blocks (1 block = 1 meter). Plugging in, we find that . At this point, though, we can't tell if this is a maximum or a minimum. One way to find out is to examine the curvature of the function at this point by using the 2nd derivative:

Plugging in , we see that which, being positive, means that is a minimum point for . Visually:

So if you want to get to your cabin as quickly as possible, the fastest route is to swim across the river to a point that is 2.9 meters from point and then run the rest of the way.

This is actually a general problem. Try replacing the speeds I used with speeds for soul sand, crouching and walking, a boat, etc. and see what happens! Particularly, what happens to (2) if you can travel more quickly in the water than on land?

#### Scratch Work

Finding First, rewrite the square root as a power,

Differentiating, using the chain rule on the first term,

Finding Starting with , we differentiate with respect to x. Note that the derivative of with respect to is 0, so we only have to deal with the first term. Using the product rule and chain rule:

Cleaning up with some algebra: